Here is a list of basic turntable parts -
The plinth is the base of the turntable. The plinth's job is to minimize vibrations from the motor and can be made from a variety of materials including MDF, wood etc.
The platter is the circular disk mounted on the plinth. Your records are placed on this. Generally the more expensive the turntable the the heavier the platter. This helps minimize and absorb vibrations which improves overall performance.
The tonearm is the part of the turntable that guides the stylus (also known as the needle) through the grooves on the vinyl.
The cartridge is mounted to the end of the tonearm. The cartridge also includes the stylus or needle.
The stylus tracks the grooves on the record.
There are two types of Cartridges, moving magnet [MM] which are present on the vast majority of turntables and moving coil [MC] cartridges which are usually found on the higher end turntables.
MM cartridges are literally a magnet that’s attached to the cantilever. As the stylus tracks, it causes the whole cantilever to move as well. The MM communicates magnetically with fixed coils inside the cartridge body, the magnetic signals are converted to and electrical signal.
MC work in a way similar to MM however in the case of MC the coils are attached directly to the cantilever.
MM cartridges usually have replaceable styli. MC on the other hand usually do not have replacement styli.